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Wulfman...
 
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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby Wulfman... on Sun Dec 03, 2017 2:10 pm

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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby Wulfman... on Sun Dec 03, 2017 2:20 pm

My question for those who claim they only have ONE choice of ISP in their area........
If you've had "net neutrality" for the last two years.......Why don't you have MORE choices by now?


Den

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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby Wulfman... on Sun Dec 03, 2017 2:52 pm

AirPump wrote:Oh Goodness Wulfman. For a person who's so well informed and helpful about sleep-apnea and CPAP matters, I'm surprised to see that you would post a link to a junk opinion web site like brietbart. That's right up there with that conspiracy nutcase at infowars for the meadow muffin of the year award. There are so many places to get news and information that have at least a shred of journalistic integrity that it's hard to imagine why any real Christian would entertain supporting brietbart - a site where the Northern Idaho skin-heads hangout that is about as far from the message of the New Testament as one can get.

Back on topic however, it looks like Net Neutrality will be headed to the courts and become one more issue in upcoming elections if Pai actually ignores the will of the people and hands the internet in this country to the telcos. As you've already correctly observed, there is big money behind preserving the internet as a neutral Title II utility for everyone, and not turning it into a windfall profit playground for a small number of Corporate monopoly interests who provide considerable dark money to campaigns. When there's no competition for internet service in over three-quarters of the country's markets, nothing good will come of this because there is no free-market to permit users to dump their ISP.


Well, that tells me alot about YOU, your political leanings and that you have absolutely no idea of what you're talking about.
If you did, you'd have known that the Aryan Nation left that area more than a decade ago, moving to some coastal states.
Maybe they live in your back yard....... ;)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aryan_Nations

It's only one of a very few media sources where you can actually get THE TRUTH. Many people know this and is why their website is topping the list of most-read/popular.


Den

.
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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby AirPump on Sun Dec 03, 2017 2:57 pm

+zoocrewphoto You were asking why so many Americans have only one choice of ISP and the answer lies largely in the large amount of capital expense required to string fiber or copper cables to individual residences. It's a capital intensive business to tear up streets and bury cables, or get (and pay) for space on overhead poles. As several posters have noted, they get internet service over existing TV cable or DSL via copper wire Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) phone lines (which is too slow to be defined as "broadband"). The issues with multiple choices for broadband at a single home are similar to the reasons we don't have multiple choices for electricity and running water. It's not practical or profitable for any one company to lay the infrastructure into a neighborhood if they're not going to get revenue from nearly all of the homes in that area. Thus the natural development of the distributed monopoly model we see today. The USA is way behind other parts of the world with respect to universal availability of broadband internet services.

Some alternatives to high wiring costs are available (Dish Network for example, and the new satellite based data connections being developed by SpaceX), but these alternatives are not yet universally available, and they are high-latency connections (noticeable delays due to the distance signals have to travel) which are sub-optimal for online gamers or securities traders. And satellite connections are also capped, so an avid movie streamer would not be happy with such a link, any more than said movie watcher would be happy with streaming movies over a cell-phone connection (also capped on a monthly basis, either by cutting off, or slowing way down after you've used up your data quota).

Modern life pretty much requires internet access, just as it requires access to electricity. In response to burgeoning abuses by some ISPs, the Net Neutrality rules were put in place back in 2015 to keep the internet available for all Americans on a level playing field by classifying internet service under Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 (which created the FCC). There's a pretty good explanation here:

https://www.dailydot.com/layer8/what-is ... ality-fcc/

Essentially, without broadband providers being classified as common carriers under Title II, the FCC would lack the legal authority to enforce net neutrality rules against blocking, throttling, and paid prioritization of access to different destinations on the internet. If ISPs are not considered common carriers, then these widespread monopolies in most markets can start throttling certain sites, or block them altogether, and that is completely counter to the ethos of the web, not to mention fraught with higher costs for consumers and legal entanglements about censorship.

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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby Wulfman... on Sun Dec 03, 2017 3:13 pm

AirPump wrote:+zoocrewphoto You were asking why so many Americans have only one choice of ISP and the answer lies largely in the large amount of capital expense required to string fiber or copper cables to individual residences. It's a capital intensive business to tear up streets and bury cables, or get (and pay) for space on overhead poles. As several posters have noted, they get internet service over existing TV cable or DSL via copper wire Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) phone lines (which is too slow to be defined as "broadband"). The issues with multiple choices for broadband at a single home are similar to the reasons we don't have multiple choices for electricity and running water. It's not practical or profitable for any one company to lay the infrastructure into a neighborhood if they're not going to get revenue from nearly all of the homes in that area. Thus the natural development of the distributed monopoly model we see today. The USA is way behind other parts of the world with respect to universal availability of broadband internet services.

Some alternatives to high wiring costs are available (Dish Network for example, and the new satellite based data connections being developed by SpaceX), but these alternatives are not yet universally available, and they are high-latency connections (noticeable delays due to the distance signals have to travel) which are sub-optimal for online gamers or securities traders. And satellite connections are also capped, so an avid movie streamer would not be happy with such a link, any more than said movie watcher would be happy with streaming movies over a cell-phone connection (also capped on a monthly basis, either by cutting off, or slowing way down after you've used up your data quota).

Modern life pretty much requires internet access, just as it requires access to electricity. In response to burgeoning abuses by some ISPs, the Net Neutrality rules were put in place back in 2015 to keep the internet available for all Americans on a level playing field by classifying internet service under Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 (which created the FCC). There's a pretty good explanation here:

https://www.dailydot.com/layer8/what-is ... ality-fcc/

Essentially, without broadband providers being classified as common carriers under Title II, the FCC would lack the legal authority to enforce net neutrality rules against blocking, throttling, and paid prioritization of access to different destinations on the internet. If ISPs are not considered common carriers, then these widespread monopolies in most markets can start throttling certain sites, or block them altogether, and that is completely counter to the ethos of the web, not to mention fraught with higher costs for consumers and legal entanglements about censorship.


WRONG AGAIN!
With the proper equipment, it's quite common to have high speed connectivity over twisted pair wiring.

From:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadband

"In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be coaxial cable, optical fiber, radio or twisted pair.

In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access that is always on and faster than traditional dial-up access."

And:

https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/38932/broadband


Den

.
Last edited by Wulfman... on Sun Dec 03, 2017 4:00 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby StuUnderPressure on Sun Dec 03, 2017 3:26 pm

AirPump wrote:+zoocrewphoto You were asking why so many Americans have only one choice of ISP and the answer lies largely in the large amount of capital expense required to string fiber or copper cables to individual residences. It's a capital intensive business to tear up streets and bury cables, or get (and pay) for space on overhead poles. As several posters have noted, they get internet service over existing TV cable or DSL via copper wire Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) phone lines (which is too slow to be defined as "broadband"). The issues with multiple choices for broadband at a single home are similar to the reasons we don't have multiple choices for electricity and running water. It's not practical or profitable for any one company to lay the infrastructure into a neighborhood if they're not going to get revenue from nearly all of the homes in that area. Thus the natural development of the distributed monopoly model we see today. The USA is way behind other parts of the world with respect to universal availability of broadband internet services.


Besides the dishes, Cox & ATT were the other choices for internet service with Cox being the primary provider.

Our problem was not choice - but rather that Cox was very frequently increasing its rates.

Solution:
My city already has a fiber system dedicated for use only by the city owned Utility System.
We expanded the fiber system used by our Utility System & laid fiber to every house & business in the City for TV, telephone, & internet service.

And the fiber is truly up to every house & business - not just to a hub blocks away.

Using me as an example, the fiber is run to a box on the outside of my house.

To set me up a new customer, the City ran coax cable from that box into my attic & connected to the coax cable I already had for my previous Cox TV service.

Then they ran Ethernet cable from that box into my attic & down into the room where my Router would be. NO charge to me for the Ethernet Cable run since none was there to begin with.

They also ran Telephone cable from that box into my attic & connected to the telephone cable I already had for my AT&T telephone service.

I originally subscribed to 40 mbps for the internet service.

Several months later, the City offered to double everyone's speed for $5.00 more per month.
So, at that point, I had 80 mbps.

Before they did the double offer, they put everyone on the 1,000 mbps speed just to make sure they could handle the double offer - but told no one they were doing that.
Even though I was on 1,000 mbps for only a few days, I do recall noting to myself that my speed seemed to be much faster on a couple of occasions.

Subsequently, the 80 mbps speed was no longer offered, but I was grandfathered in.
The closest speed to the 80 mbps is now 100 mbps.
Even though I only pay for 80 mbps, my periodic speed tests show that I am in reality getting the 100 mbps.

When I was at 40 mbps my cost was approx. 1/2 of what I had been paying Cox.
Now, at 80 / 100 mbps, it is much less than that.

And, the 80 / 100 mbps speed is both download and upload.

And YES, the City is making a profit at those rates.

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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby DreamStalker on Sun Dec 03, 2017 3:30 pm

Wulfman... wrote:
AirPump wrote:Oh Goodness Wulfman. For a person who's so well informed and helpful about sleep-apnea and CPAP matters, I'm surprised to see that you would post a link to a junk opinion web site like brietbart. That's right up there with that conspiracy nutcase at infowars for the meadow muffin of the year award. There are so many places to get news and information that have at least a shred of journalistic integrity that it's hard to imagine why any real Christian would entertain supporting brietbart - a site where the Northern Idaho skin-heads hangout that is about as far from the message of the New Testament as one can get.

Back on topic however, it looks like Net Neutrality will be headed to the courts and become one more issue in upcoming elections if Pai actually ignores the will of the people and hands the internet in this country to the telcos. As you've already correctly observed, there is big money behind preserving the internet as a neutral Title II utility for everyone, and not turning it into a windfall profit playground for a small number of Corporate monopoly interests who provide considerable dark money to campaigns. When there's no competition for internet service in over three-quarters of the country's markets, nothing good will come of this because there is no free-market to permit users to dump their ISP.


Well, that tells me alot about YOU, your political leanings and that you have absolutely no idea of what you're talking about.
If you did, you'd have known that the Aryan Nation left that area more than a decade ago, moving to some coastal states.
Maybe they live in your back yard....... ;)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aryan_Nations

It's only one of a very few media sources where you can actually get THE TRUTH. Many people know this and is why their website is topping the list of most-read/popular.


Den

.


Well he did educate everyone with a thing or two about the New Testament .... didn't he? :? :? :?
Thanks Snoredog, GoofyUT, rested gal, GoofProof, Wulfman, NightHawkeye, snoregirl and all of the others.
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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby DreamStalker on Sun Dec 03, 2017 3:45 pm

It means they don't give a flying squat about what you or I think because they are "appointed" NOT elected officials. They are going to do whatever is in their best interest when their terms are over! So it doesn't matter because they're owned by the highest paying corporate monopoly. :roll: :roll: :roll:

The FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U.S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business.

Name, Position, State of Residence, Party, Term Expires†
Ajit Pai, Chairman, Kansas, Republican, June 30, 2021
Mignon Clyburn, Commissioner, South Carolina, Democratic, June 30, 2017
Brendan Carr, Virginia, Republican, June 30, 2018
Michael O'Rielly, New York, Republican, June 30, 2019
Jessica Rosenworcel, Connecticut, Democratic, June 30, 2020

† Importantly, commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements, but may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.[8] In practice, as of 2016 this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Communications_Commission
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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby Goofproof on Sun Dec 03, 2017 4:02 pm

DreamStalker wrote:It means they don't give a flying squat about what you or I think because they are "appointed" NOT elected officials. They are going to do whatever is in their best interest when their terms are over! So it doesn't matter because they're owned by the highest paying corporate monopoly. :roll: :roll: :roll:

The FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U.S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business.

Name, Position, State of Residence, Party, Term Expires†
Ajit Pai, Chairman, Kansas, Republican, June 30, 2021
Mignon Clyburn, Commissioner, South Carolina, Democratic, June 30, 2017
Brendan Carr, Virginia, Republican, June 30, 2018
Michael O'Rielly, New York, Republican, June 30, 2019
Jessica Rosenworcel, Connecticut, Democratic, June 30, 2020

† Importantly, commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements, but may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.[8] In practice, as of 2016 this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Communications_Commission


Or elected officials, could care less to, they only care how to siphon off the most money. Jim

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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby Lucyhere on Sun Dec 03, 2017 6:49 pm

johnnygoodman wrote:I support network neutrality.

Johnny



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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby PST on Mon Dec 04, 2017 4:55 pm

Wulfman... wrote:https://spectator.org/everybody-is-wrong-about-net-neutrality/

I got a kick out of the first comment on this:
Good article....I don't really understand the debate but if liberals are in favor of "net neutrality" that means something's wrong with it.

That is as much as some people feel they need to know.

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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby jnk... on Mon Dec 04, 2017 5:29 pm

PST wrote:need to know.

I, for one, sir, would welcome any insight you might have on the subject at hand. Your observations often strike me as a rare fresh perspective coming at larger questions from a unique angle.
-jeff, a user, not a pro.

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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby AirPump on Mon Dec 04, 2017 5:30 pm

Wulfman... wrote:
AirPump wrote:+zoocrewphoto You were asking why so many Americans have only one choice of ISP and the answer lies largely in the large amount of capital expense required to string fiber or copper cables to individual residences. It's a capital intensive business to tear up streets and bury cables, or get (and pay) for space on overhead poles. As several posters have noted, they get internet service over existing TV cable or DSL via copper wire Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) phone lines (which is too slow to be defined as "broadband"). The issues with multiple choices for broadband at a single home are similar to the reasons we don't have multiple choices for electricity and running water. It's not practical or profitable for any one company to lay the infrastructure into a neighborhood if they're not going to get revenue from nearly all of the homes in that area. Thus the natural development of the distributed monopoly model we see today. The USA is way behind other parts of the world with respect to universal availability of broadband internet services.

Some alternatives to high wiring costs are available (Dish Network for example, and the new satellite based data connections being developed by SpaceX), but these alternatives are not yet universally available, and they are high-latency connections (noticeable delays due to the distance signals have to travel) which are sub-optimal for online gamers or securities traders. And satellite connections are also capped, so an avid movie streamer would not be happy with such a link, any more than said movie watcher would be happy with streaming movies over a cell-phone connection (also capped on a monthly basis, either by cutting off, or slowing way down after you've used up your data quota).

Modern life pretty much requires internet access, just as it requires access to electricity. In response to burgeoning abuses by some ISPs, the Net Neutrality rules were put in place back in 2015 to keep the internet available for all Americans on a level playing field by classifying internet service under Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 (which created the FCC). There's a pretty good explanation here:

https://www.dailydot.com/layer8/what-is ... ality-fcc/

Essentially, without broadband providers being classified as common carriers under Title II, the FCC would lack the legal authority to enforce net neutrality rules against blocking, throttling, and paid prioritization of access to different destinations on the internet. If ISPs are not considered common carriers, then these widespread monopolies in most markets can start throttling certain sites, or block them altogether, and that is completely counter to the ethos of the web, not to mention fraught with higher costs for consumers and legal entanglements about censorship.


WRONG AGAIN!
With the proper equipment, it's quite common to have high speed connectivity over twisted pair wiring.

From:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadband

"In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be coaxial cable, optical fiber, radio or twisted pair.

In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access that is always on and faster than traditional dial-up access."

And:

https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/38932/broadband


Den

.


Hi Wulfman -
Your Wikipedia reference clearly sites that the 2015 (latest) definition of broadband is 25Mbps down / 3Mpbs up. I agree. Be that as it may, the use of copper twisted pairs for high speed is very limited for the distance it can transmit something like a 1 gig bit rate. The speed/distance one can use copper wire is described by the Shannon-Harltey theorem which says that over a channel with a given quality, the capacity (bit rate) C is proportional to the channel's bandwith B. The quality of the channel (signal vs. noise) hides within log2(1+S/N)log2(1+S/N), and the bit rate includes redundancy (error checksums and the like). Long copper wire runs have a poor signal to noise ratio, especially if run through conduits that contain other electrical cables. So while you are correct that a CAT 5 twisted pair ethernet cable can handle 100Mbps (for up to about 300 feet), and a CAT 6 twisted pair Ethernet cable can handle up to 1gig data rates, the distances are very limited. Twisted pair copper is fine for data cabling within your home, but no good for high data rates when talking about transmission over a thousand feet or so. (actual distance will depend on the physical and electromagnetic noise environment of the cable and whether repeaters are being used - which gets expensive. )

Of the wiring systems you mentioned, a simple two-wire phone line will have the lowest bandwidth and the worst noise properties (crosstalk and interference from neighboring lines etc.), twisted pair wires increase the bandwidth and are more immune to external noise. But fiber is nearly completely immune to external noise (EMF can impact fiber repeaters, but not the cable itself). Which is why telcos who shoulder the expense to tear up streets and sidewalks will generally lay fiber these days, vs copper wire, or even coax cable. It's much more "future proof".
You said that you send a check to your telco each month to get phone and internet service. (vs paying your cable TV company for internet for example). Do you know who your local phone company has contracted with as the internet backbone provider? Has your phone company run fiber down your street? If so, you’re in better shape for high speed access than many Americans.

In response to your other question about why aren't there more choices for internet after two years of net neutrality, I could respond with a question: Why don't you have multiple choices for electric power to your home after a hundred years of electricity? If you don't like your electricity provider, you can install your own solar panels, wind generator, diesel genset etc. and get what you need, but even that option isn't available for internet access. I personally want a reliable "dumb pipe" to deliver internet data bits to my home. I want a fixed, low cost for that pipe, which will deliver content from anywhere I can get to on the web. I don't want my "dumb pipe" provider deciding for me where I can go and where I can't go on the web. And I don't want to double my internet utility costs to pay for redundant infrastructure anymore than either of us would want to pay for redundant power lines to our homes so we could choose between different electricity providers.

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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby Goofproof on Mon Dec 04, 2017 5:34 pm

No matter which side wins. You can bet "The Working Man", is going to have to Pay The Band", he always pays. :roll: Jim

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Re: OT - Net Neutrality

Postby Wulfman... on Mon Dec 04, 2017 7:03 pm

AirPump wrote:Hi Wulfman -
Your Wikipedia reference clearly sites that the 2015 (latest) definition of broadband is 25Mbps down / 3Mpbs up. I agree. Be that as it may, the use of copper twisted pairs for high speed is very limited for the distance it can transmit something like a 1 gig bit rate. The speed/distance one can use copper wire is described by the Shannon-Harltey theorem which says that over a channel with a given quality, the capacity (bit rate) C is proportional to the channel's bandwith B. The quality of the channel (signal vs. noise) hides within log2(1+S/N)log2(1+S/N), and the bit rate includes redundancy (error checksums and the like). Long copper wire runs have a poor signal to noise ratio, especially if run through conduits that contain other electrical cables. So while you are correct that a CAT 5 twisted pair ethernet cable can handle 100Mbps (for up to about 300 feet), and a CAT 6 twisted pair Ethernet cable can handle up to 1gig data rates, the distances are very limited. Twisted pair copper is fine for data cabling within your home, but no good for high data rates when talking about transmission over a thousand feet or so. (actual distance will depend on the physical and electromagnetic noise environment of the cable and whether repeaters are being used - which gets expensive. )

Of the wiring systems you mentioned, a simple two-wire phone line will have the lowest bandwidth and the worst noise properties (crosstalk and interference from neighboring lines etc.), twisted pair wires increase the bandwidth and are more immune to external noise. But fiber is nearly completely immune to external noise (EMF can impact fiber repeaters, but not the cable itself). Which is why telcos who shoulder the expense to tear up streets and sidewalks will generally lay fiber these days, vs copper wire, or even coax cable. It's much more "future proof".
You said that you send a check to your telco each month to get phone and internet service. (vs paying your cable TV company for internet for example). Do you know who your local phone company has contracted with as the internet backbone provider? Has your phone company run fiber down your street? If so, you’re in better shape for high speed access than many Americans.

In response to your other question about why aren't there more choices for internet after two years of net neutrality, I could respond with a question: Why don't you have multiple choices for electric power to your home after a hundred years of electricity? If you don't like your electricity provider, you can install your own solar panels, wind generator, diesel genset etc. and get what you need, but even that option isn't available for internet access. I personally want a reliable "dumb pipe" to deliver internet data bits to my home. I want a fixed, low cost for that pipe, which will deliver content from anywhere I can get to on the web. I don't want my "dumb pipe" provider deciding for me where I can go and where I can't go on the web. And I don't want to double my internet utility costs to pay for redundant infrastructure anymore than either of us would want to pay for redundant power lines to our homes so we could choose between different electricity providers.


You don't need to "school" me in wiring networks. I did it for several decades in many types of cabling. At the last facility I worked, I was the Information Systems Manager. I converted it from old Arcnet cable to Cat 5 and eventually a mixture of fiber and Cat 5. I also did all the phone system maintenance wiring and programming (close to 100 phone extensions in 8 or 9 buildings). The main twisted pair wiring came in from the nearby highway and was nearly a quarter of a mile away. But, I think they've since upgraded that to fiber since I retired in mid-2009. We had several T1 connections with enough speed for 10 MBPS computer connections (several hundred computers and several servers), video conferencing and classroom education video training.
Prior to that position, I also worked with banks and insurance offices (among others), wiring their facilities and programming networks on mainframes and micros (and networking micros to mainframes).

I previously stated that I didn't know who our regional phone company works with for their connectivity. Most of it in the small communities is over twisted pairs into "special" modems and into 300Mbps Wireless N Routers. So, it's not a "simple two-wire phone line". I have no complaints about the speed as I had been on dial-up modems until September of 2016. I actually pay less to my phone company now that I have higher speed connectivity over one phone line (instead of the previous two). I probably should have converted sooner.
But, in the larger towns in this area, they're offering fiber to the homes/buildings and much higher speeds....up to 1 gigabit.

Our electricity provider is an REA (Rural Electric Association) and if VERY reasonable as far as their price, so I'm not complaining about that. Ever few years, I get some sort of "refund" checks from them, too. Over the last 35 years or so, I've actually thought about solar power, but it never made sense cost-wise. I was actually "green" long before it became fashionable/trendy.

The local natural gas provider is also very reasonable, so I have no complaints there, either.

You said:
I don't want my "dumb pipe" provider deciding for me where I can go and where I can't go on the web.


But, if Google, Facebook and other "content providers" get control, you may have less control over where you can or can't go.
To me, your statement sounds like a contradiction of what you actually want or think you have with "net neutrality".


So, yes, it sounds like I AM better off than many around the country. So, I'm not complaining. ( It doesn't help and I'm not that type anyway. Just try to take life as it comes and deal with it. I leave the complaining to the liberals. They're good at it. )



Den

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(4) REMstar Autos w/C-Flex & (6) REMstar Pro 2 CPAPs w/C-Flex - Pressure Setting = 13 cm.
"Passover" Humidification - ResMed Ultra Mirage FF - Encore Pro w/Card Reader & MyEncore software - Chiroflow pillow
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